History of Tambov
Tambov is an administrative center of the Tambov region, located 480 km to the south from Moscow in the central part of the Oksko-Donsky (Tambov) plain on the left bank of the Tsna (the basin of the Volga) at a confluence of the Studenets. Climate is temperately continental. The name of the town has Mordovian origin ("Tonbov"), according to the name of the river flowing into the Tsna higher on its current (nowadays — the river Forest Tambov).
In 1636 a stolnik R.F.Boborykin was entrusted with the construction of the fortress near a crossing of the Tsna on the ancient Ordobazarnaya road connecting Moscow with Low Volga region. However the town was constructed down-stream on the left bank of the Tsna in the mouth of the Studenets in the day of the Resurrection of Christ (on April, 17).
In 1647 the system of fortification constructions was built — the Tambov shaft which became part of Simbirsk zasechny line (it passed from Simbirsk to Kozlov where connected to the Belgorod line).
Tambov successfully repelled a set of attacks of steppe nomads, including the Nogai Tatars and Kalmyks, attack of armies of Stepan Razin, a siege of ataman L.Hokhlachev. In 1667 in Tambov the aged monk Joseph based the Kazansky man's monastery. In 1685 near Tambov bishop Pitirim based the Ioanno-Predtechensky Tregulyaev monastery, and in 1690 in Tambov — the Voznesensky female monastery and the Spaso-Preobrazhensky cathedral. Since the middle of the XVIII century Tambov lost its status of military fortress and developed as the center of the agrarian area. Since 1719 Tambov became the center of the Tambov province (as a part of Azov, since 1732 — the Voronezh province), since 1779 — the Tambov region ruled by a governor, in 1796 Tambov got the status of the central town of province.
During the XVII—XVIII centuries the city became regional trade center. The industry developed slowly, the artisan undertaking prevailed: at the beginning of the XIX century there were the tannery, three breweries, 9 brickworks, rope factory, spinning and wool factories, 6 mills. By the middle of the XIX century local trading continued to develop in the city, there were new tallow-melting, tobacco, candle-tallow, oil-making, iron foundries, breweries, brickworks, tile and limy factories, mills. In 1812 Tambov became the center of formation of a province militia, a shelter for the refugees from Moscow. Poet G. R. Derzhavin (1786 — 1788) had a great impact on the development of cultural life of the town. In the first half of the XIX century in Tambov the military school worked, in 1825 the male gymnasium was opened, in 1830 — public library, in 1843 — Aleksandrinsky institution for young ladies, in 1870 — Ekaterina's pedagogical institute, in 1879 — a historical and ethnographic museum were opened, in 1893 the society of public reading was created. In 1900 the Tambov musical school was opened on the basis of musical classes. By 1917 in Tambov there were 30 churches, 16 parish schools, a Lutheran church, a Catholic church, a synagogue, 2 male and 3 female gymnasiums, a Realschule, more than 25 public and 10 private elementary schools, a public vocational school, 2 railway elementary schools, a seminary, a diocesan school, 2 religious schools, an agricultural school of the province. The Soviet government in Tambov was established in January, 1918. Since 1928 the town was a part of Central Chernozem area, since 1934 it became a part of the Voronezh region. During the Great Patriotic War Tambov region was a centre of production of many goods and a hospital rear base. The historical downtown was created on the left bank of the Tsna, the right bank almost did not have buildings there were forest parks, meadows and gardens. The architectural structure of the XVIII century wasn't broken. According to the general planning of 1968 three big residential areas were created: central, west and northwest.
In 1950 — 1990 the town developed rapidly, especially its industrial sphere, a number of public buildings, including malls in streets Internationalnay, Michurinskay, Sovetskay, the regional philharmonic hall, the regional universal scientific library, the Palace of culture «Yubileyny», hotels «Tambov» and «Tolna», sports palaces «Cristal» and «Antaeus», the building of the Tambov region administration and others. During this period many monuments were erected, for example, to Lermontov, to Zoya Kosmedemyanskay, Sergeev-Tsensky, to Tambov soldiers who had fallen in the Great Patriotic War, the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Petrov.
Tambov took the 2nd place in the All-Russian competition "The Most Well-planned City of Russia — 2001". By the beginning of 2002 Tambov became the industrial center. In Tambov there are 5246 enterprises, including 580 — industrial, 553 — construction, 1839 — trade, 222 — transport and communication, 59 schools of public education, 9 specialized schools, 5 musical and art schools, 38 libraries, 52 medical institutions, including 13 medical centres, 4 hospitals, 15 municipal chemist's shops.
Tambov of the first half of the XIX century is described by the famous Russian poet Lermontov in the poem "The Kaznacheysha from Tambov". Tambov of the 1920s is satirically represented in Platonov’s story «The City of Cities».
Nowadays Tambov is the city with the developing industry, infrastructure, social, educational and cultural spheres.